The Pale Blue Dot? Chapter Seventeen: The Northern/Southern Constellations and Space; the Final Frontier?

Written By Thomas Perez. January 14, 2019 at 2:18AM. Copyright 2019. Updated 2020.

This chapter is divided into sections. Section A deals with our Constellations. Section B deals with space. Section C deals with the validity and question of space itself. And Section D deals with everything in the family.

Section A: The Northern and Southern Constellations

If the Earth was flat, why do we see different constellation patterns in the Southern hemisphere and vice versa? The answer to this question is rather fairly obvious: Perspective.

“Another phenomenon supposed to prove rotundity, is thought to be the fact that Polaris, or the north polar star sinks to the horizon as the traveler approaches the equator, on passing which it becomes invisible. This is a conclusion fully as premature and illogical as that involved in the several cases already alluded to. It is an ordinary effect of perspective for an object to appear lower and lower as the observer goes farther and farther away from it.”

“Let anyone try the experiment of looking at a lighthouse, church spire, monument, gas lamp, or other elevated object, from a distance of only a few yards, and notice the angle at which it is observed. Ongoing farther away, the angle under which it is seen will diminish, and the object will appear lower and lower as the distance of the observer increases, until, at a certain point, the line of sight to the object, and the apparently uprising surface of the Earth upon or over which it stands, will converge to the angle which constitutes the “vanishing point” or the horizon; beyond which it will be invisible.”

“What can be more common than the observation that, standing at one end of a long row of lamp-posts, those nearest to us seem to be the highest; and those farthest away the lowest; whilst, as we move along towards the opposite end of the series, those which we approach seem to get higher, and those we are leaving behind appear to gradually become lower.”

“This lowering of the pole star as we recede southwards; and the rising of the stars in the south as we approach them, is the necessary result of the everywhere visible law of perspective operating between the eye-line of the observer, the object observed, and the plane surface upon which he stands; and has no connection with or relation whatever to the supposed rotundity of the earth.” (1).

1.“Earth Not a Globe,” Samuel Birley Rowbotham

The fact that we can see the same stars all night long revolving perfect circles around Polaris proves it is the stars and us that’s doing the moving, not a perspective from a globe Earth right side-up or upside down.

Section B: Space; The Final Frontier?

Space: According to Mainstream Science

A. What is space, according to mainstream science? B. Who found space first? CWhere does space begin? D. Who coined the word space, anyway? E. How many spaces (dimensions) does space have? The answer to these questions may surprise you. The answers are as follows.

A. “Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime.” (2).

2. “Space – Physics and Metaphysics”. Encyclopedia Britannica.

B. Edwin Hubble: (1889-1953) The man who discovered the Cosmos. Edwin Hubble changed the way we thought of the Universe forever. When scientists decided to name the Hubble Space Telescope after him, they could not have made a more appropriate choice.” However, a rival to Hubble, Harlow Shapley, thought that the universe was static. To Shapley, the universe was only the Milky Way (our galaxy) and that there was nothing else beyond it, despite an earlier declaration of such from William Herschel a century before. Like Hubble, Herschel believed that there was more to outer space than just our Milky Way galaxy.

“In October 1923, using the Hooker Telescope, Hubble spotted what he first thought was a nova star flaring up dramatically in the Andromeda ‘nebula’. After careful examination of photographic plates of the same area taken previously by other astronomers, he realized that it was a particular kind of variable star, known as a Cepheid, which could be used to measure distance.”

“It showed Hubble that Andromeda was far away – a million light-years at least – and so was outside the Milky Way. Thus, it was a galaxy in its own right, containing billions of stars.”

“This discovery was a breakthrough, but Hubble’s greatest moment was yet to come. He began to study and classify all the known nebulae. In 1929 he made a startling find: most galaxies seemed to be receding from us with velocities that increased in proportion to their distance from us. This relationship is now known as Hubble’s Law.”

“It was a revelation and overturned the conventional view of a static Universe by showing that the Universe itself was expanding. More than a decade earlier, Einstein himself had bowed to the observational wisdom of the day and corrected his equations, which had originally predicted an expanding Universe. Now Hubble had demonstrated that Einstein had been right in the first place.” (3).


C. This 3rd answer may surprise you as it did me, and probably many astronomical students just as well. “Outer space does not begin at a definite altitude above the Earth’s surface. However, the Karman line, an altitude of 100 km (62 mi) above sea level, is conventionally used as the start of outer space in space treaties and for aerospace records keeping.” (4).

“The Karman line is 100 kilometres (62 miles; 330,000 feet) above Earth’s Earth’s sea level. Other organizations do not use this definition. For instance, the US Air Force and NASA define the limit to be 50 miles (80 kilometres) above sea level for purposes of awarding personnel with outer space badges. There is no international law defining the edge of space, and therefore the limit of national airspace, and the US is resisting regulatory movement on this front” (5).

4. Layers of the Atmosphere, National Weather Service JetStream – Online School for Weather

5. Dr. S. Sanz Fernández de Córdoba (2004-06-24). “The 100 km Boundary for Astronautics”. Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Archived from the original on 2011-08-22. Retrieved 2014-05-07.

D. The term space was first used to mean the region beyond Earth’s sky in John Milton’s Paradise Lost in 1667. The term outward space was used in 1842 by the English poet Lady Emmeline Stuart-Wortley in her poem “The Maiden of Moscow.” The expression outer space was used as an astronomical term by Alexander von Humboldt in 1845. It was later popularized in the writings of H. G. Wells in 1901. (6) (7) (8) (9).

6. Stuart Wortley 1841, p. 410.

7. Von Humboldt 1845, p. 39.

8. Harper, Douglas, “Outer”Online Etymology Dictionary, archived from the original on 2010-03-12, retrieved 2008-03-24.

9. Harper, Douglas (November 2001), SpaceThe Online Etymology Dictionary, archived from the original on 2009-02-24, retrieved 2009-06-19.

E. Space has 3 dimensions. It is called; ‘Three-Dimensional Space.’ It is a geometric setting in which three values called parameters are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension. In physics and mathematics, a sequence of n numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space. When n = 3, the set of all such locations is called three-dimensional Euclidean Space.

Later the concept of time was added to the space of 3 dimensions; called Spacetime. Hence the term: Four-Dimensional Continuum. However, in 1905 Einstein postulated that the laws of physics are invariant (i.e., identical) in all inertial systems (i.e., non-accelerating frames of reference); The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of the motion of the light source.

Remember what I said in prior articles in reference to light speed, light-years, measurements, stellar parallax and aberrations? We remember the inconsistencies concerning them and how they were subject to error, miscalculations and downright personal preferences in a particular mathematical persuasion, all steaming from a minority vote and prestige, rather than the majority.

Based upon what we accept as common knowledge, and the various definitions given based upon that knowledge; every citation reference mentioned above indicate that outer space does indeed exist. But what if outer space didn’t exist at all? What if it doesn’t exist the way we assume it to be so in the conversational sense? Is it absurd to ask questions like this? Is it ridiculous? Answer: Apparently not.

Many physicists are beginning to once again question the validity of outer space itself. It would appear to me that many physicists are going back to the fundamentals, reexamining experiments, theories and mathematical equations in conjunction with those experiments and equations. It is peculiar to me that some physicists are even questioning space, especially when they apparently have all the empirical evidence they will ever need – via – photos and videos, courtesy of NASA and other space agencies. But nevertheless, question it they do; flat Earthers are not the only ones. Let us take a look into these questions.

Section C: Space; Does It Really Exist? What If It Did Not?

Assuming that all of the above, with reference to outer space, is correct; of which no one should have any doubts about, especially when considering dimensions, we must ask ourselves an additional question. What is the shape of the universe?

Answer: There are three possibilities. “In General Relativity, four-dimensional spacetime is curved. There are basically three possible shapes to the Universe; 1. a flat Universe (Euclidean or zero curvature), 2. a spherical or closed Universe (positive curvature) or 3. a hyperbolic or open Universe (negative curvature).” In other words; “The universe could be positively curved, like a sphere. The universe could be negatively curved, like a saddle. The universe could be flat, like a sheet of paper.” (10).

The mathematical expressions for the three possibilities are as follows…

The local geometry of the universe is determined by whether the density parameter Ω is greater than, less than, or equal to 1. A spherical universe with Ω > 1, a hyperbolic universe with Ω < 1, and a flat universe with Ω = 1. These depictions of two-dimensional surfaces are merely easily visualized analogs to the 3-dimensional structure of (local) space. Omega (Ω) means the end of all things. In the Greek alphabet, alpha is the first letter and omega is the last. Obviously, it is used as the mathematical notation or symbol for the last place in a set or group of items.

“In a flat universeEuclidean geometry (Euclidean Space – T. Perez) applies at the very largest scales. This means parallel lines will never meet, and the internal angles of a triangle always add up to exactly 180 degrees – just like you’re used to. But in curved universes, whether finite or infinite, things get weird.” (11).



Moreover, according to NASA’s Starchild…

“One of the most profound insights of General Relativity was the conclusion that mass caused space to curve, and objects travelling in that curved space have their paths deflected, exactly as if a force had acted on them. If space itself is curved, there are three general possibilities for the geometry of the universe. Each of these possibilities is tied to the amount of mass (and thus to the total strength of gravitation) in the universe, and each implies a different past and future for the universe.”

“First, let’s look at shapes and curvatures for a two-dimensional surface. Mathematicians distinguish 3 qualitatively different classes of curvature, as illustrated in the following image:

image showing a sphere which represents a positive curvature surface; a flat piece of paper representing a zero curvature surface; and a saddle shape representing a negative curvature surface“The flat surface at the left is said to have zero curvature, the spherical surface is said to have positive curvature, and the saddle-shaped surface is said to have negative curvature.”

“The preceding is not too difficult to visualize, but General Relativity asserts that space itself (not just an object in space) can be curved, and furthermore, the space of General Relativity has 3 space-like dimensions and one time dimension, not just two as in our example above. This IS difficult to visualize! Nevertheless, it can be described mathematically by the same methods that mathematicians use to describe the 2-dimensional surfaces. So, what do the three types of curvature – zero, positive, and negative -mean to the universe?” …

“In reality, determining the value of the density parameter and thus the ultimate fate of the universe remains one of the major unsolved problems in modern cosmology. The recently (June 30, 2001) launched MAP mission will be able to measure the value definitively within the next 5 years.” (12).

Another picture depicting the shape of the universe.


Update: As of 2018 “The simplest version of the inflationary theory, an extension of the Big Bang theory, predicts that the density of the universe is very close to the critical density, and that the geometry of the universe is flat, like a sheet of paper.”

“The WMAP spacecraft can measure the basic parameters of the Big Bang theory including the geometry of the universe. If the universe were flat, the brightest microwave background fluctuations (or “spots”) would be about one degree across. If the universe were open, the spots would be less than one degree across. If the universe were closed, the brightest spots would be greater than one degree across.”

“Recent measurements (c. 2001) by a number of ground-based and balloon-based experiments, including MAT/TOCO, Boomerang, Maxima, and DASI, have shown that the brightest spots are about 1 degree across. Thus, the universe was known to be flat to within about 15% accuracy prior to the WMAP results. WMAP has confirmed this result with very high accuracy and precision. We now know (as of 2013) that the universe is flat with only a 0.4% margin of error. This suggests that the Universe is infinite in extent; however, since the Universe has a finite age, we can only observe a finite volume of the Universe. All we can truly conclude is that the Universe is much larger than the volume we can directly observe.” (13).


But how, and where, does a flat Earth fit into the picture of a flat universe?

Well, for starters; according to globe Earthers, “Spoiler alert: The universe is flat.” “When we examine very old light – say, the cosmic microwave background – that has been traveling the universe for more than 13.8 billion years, we get a true sense of the universe’s shape. And the answer, as far as we can tell, to within an incredibly small margin of uncertainty, is that the universe is flat.” But does this necessarily indicate a flat Earth also? Not according to Globe Earthers.

The same site ( cites; “Remember that measuring the shape of the universe is a question for cosmology, the study of the entire universe. And in cosmology, nobody cares about you. Or me. Or solar systems. Or black holes. Or galaxies. In cosmology we care about the universe only at the very largest scales; small-scale bumps and wiggles are not important for this question.” “The universe has all sorts of deformations in space-time where it varies from the perfectly flat. Any place where there’s mass or energy, there’s a corresponding bending of space-time – that’s General Relativity”

Paul Strutter: Astrophysicist claims “While the geometry of the universe is very well measured (again, it’s flat), the topology is not.” (14). Meaning anything flat by topological standards can become round and curved, but still remain flat. “Typology is the mathematical study of geometric properties and spatial relations unaffected by the continuous change of shape or size of figures.” (15).

He gives the illustration of two parallel lines on a flat paper, then folding it into a cylinder; the lines remain parallel because cylinders are flat. This is true. He also gives the example of parallel lines on a curved spherical object like, according to Strutter, the Earth. Parallel lines converge at the top, or bottom for that matter, on a ball when drawn from the equator up or down because curvatures in a flat universe exists – via spacetime curvature. He also gives 4 more examples (Torus, Hantzsche-Wendt Manifold, Klein Bottle, Mobius Strip/Band) through affirmations of shapes on flat surfaces.


15. Google Dictionary.

Similarly, “When cosmologists say that the universe is flat, they are referring to space – the now-verse and its parallel siblings of time past. Spacetime is not flat. It can’t be Einstein’s general theory of relativity says that matter and energy curve spacetime, and there are enough matter and energy lying around to provide for curvature.” (16).


In other words, the universe, as in space itself, is flat but spacetime is not. This declaration demands that it be beyond a shadow of a doubt. But when we consider various aspects like spacetime curvature and topologies with a sensitive quantum-spacetime-measuring tool called the ‘Holometer,’ the question of 3-dimensional space comes into play: in favor of a 2-dimensional shape. The Holometer in Illinois is intended to be the world’s the most sensitive laser interferometer, surpassing others. The job of the Holometer is to be able to detect holographic fluctuations in spacetime. In other words, it is supposed to check for pixels found in the universe at the smallest levels – smaller than a proton. This is called ‘Hogans Theory,’ named after Craig Hogan – particle astrophysicist.

“According to the director of the project, the Holometer should be capable of detecting fluctuations in the light of a single attometer, meeting or exceeding the sensitivity required to detect the smallest units in the universe called Planck units Fermilab states: “Everyone is familiar these days with the blurry and pixelated images, or noisy sound transmission, associated with poor internet bandwidth. The Holometer seeks to detect the equivalent blurriness or noise in reality itself, associated with the ultimate frequency limit imposed by nature.”

“As of December 3, 2015, after a year of data collection, the Holometer has ruled out Hogan’s theory of a pixelated universe to a high degree of statistical significance (4.6 sigma). The study found that spacetime is not quantized at the scale being measured.” (17) (18) (19).

17. Mosher, David (2010-10-28). “World’s Most Precise Clocks Could Reveal Universe Is a Hologram”. Wired.

18. “The Fermilab Holometer”Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Retrieved2010-11-01.

19. Salles, Andre (2015-12-03). “Holometer rules out first theory of space-time correlations”. Fermilab. Retrieved 11 December 2015.

However, this much is certain, the Holometer was able to prove “That it can probe time and space at previously unimagined scales.” “Hogan says. It also proves that if this quantum jitter exists, it is either much smaller than the Holometer can detect or is moving in directions the current instrument is not configured to observe.” …”Hogan says the Holometer team will continue to take and analyze data and will publish more general and more sensitive studies of holographic noise” …”Hogan is already putting forth a new model of holographic structure that would require similar instruments of the same sensitivity, but different configurations sensitive to the rotation of space.” (20).


If Hogans theory is proven correct, it will coincide with the 2013 confirmation of the universe as being “flat like a sheet of paper.” But for now, the similarities of the two would just have to wait. But while we are waiting, I find it rather very interesting that the theory of a holographic universe (and our world, for that matter) came about at the same time in 2014-15 those astronomers and physicists confirmed a flat universe in 2013. I suppose they were seeking confirmation. Since the universe is flat, and possibly holographic, then what are the true dimensions of the Earth and space?

It’s like something out of the movie, ‘The Matrix.’ The only thing about all of this is that it is real. The theories are real, and so are the observations. And if the theories are real, then our perceptions concerning shapes like balls, spheres and curvatures are illusions and perceptions like I discussed in chapter twelve. Illusions similar to high tech video space games like; Mass Effect, StarCraft, Star Wars, Halo and Star Trek – where we see ball like spheres called “planets,” but they are really on a flat screen. Is it any wonder why there is such a thing as the philosophy of perception and discussions concerning Rene Descartes’ ‘Meditations,’ and his Cartesian doubt.

So what are we left with in reference to space. We know it is flat. We also know that it is not a hologram or pixelated matrix like a HD television set; at least for nowWe know that different shapes exist. We also know that although spacetime curvatures exist, we also know that it exists on a sheet – a flat sheet.

Picture a white sheet, better yet, picture a black sheet. Spread the sheet out. Have a friend or two hold on tight to one end of the sheet, while you and another friend hold on to the other side. Now have another person drop a ball with some weight on it, like a soccer ball or basketball. You will notice the warp in curvature on the sheet. Now have your friend drop a flat object like a laptop or a circular heavy plate of steel – the curvature of the sheet will come into play again. The “Show and Tell” of this little observation is to demonstrate that balls can cause curvatures, but so can flat circular plates of steel. But what of the firmament (dome) we discussed in the other chapters prior?

Having a flat universe does not affect the shape of the firmament/dome at all. Because if that was the case, then spherical balls that cause curvatures in spacetime would not exist according to mainstream. So therefore, by reasonable deduction, a flat universe doesn’t cancel out a domed Earth. A domed Earth is like a glass snow globe. A snow globe is half a globe. The surface inside the globe is flat, while its world is rounded, or circumscribed, by the glass protecting the contents inside. The other half of the globe does not exist, it is bottom. And that bottom can go on forever from the perspective of the little figurines inside the domed globe. A globe can also be placed on an outstretched sheet, causing curvature.

But that would mean that something else exists outside of the dome, namely the sheet – aka – the universe. But according to the domed theory of Biblical proportions, the dome is the actual universe. Hence outer space is really a whole lot of inner space instead. Considering all that was discussed in prior articles, another way to look at the domed Earth is to again picture our sheet with the Earth on it, (its ground, with its canyons of oceans). Now imagine placing other items on the sheet, like stars and wandering stars, which also causes curvatures. Now imagine powerful air vents at the bottom of the four corners of the sheet until it looks like an air balloon; do you get the picture? Now we have our domed universe.

Our sheet – the firmament Dome – becomes the center of the universe because it is the universe. And since the dome circumscribes the Earth as postulated in chapters three, fifteen and sixteen, the Earth and all contained in it, under it (as in its oceans) and above it, is all that there is and all that will ever be. The Earth and its firmament is the stretched cosmos expanding. The Earth doesn’t occupy the cosmos, the cosmos occupies the Earth and her firmament dome. And as a result of that occupation, the universe appears to be the thing that is expanding, when in reality it may be the Earth that is expanding.

NASA denies an expanding Earth, claiming; “Earth is not expanding, as some scientists had previously speculated,” as of 2011. (21). However, as of 2015 ‘Science Direct’ claims that it is expanding, and they have a number of empirical evidence to show for it, including, but not limited to, plate tectonics. (22). If you were to Google the words, “Is the Earth expanding,” you will find a mixture of opinions. According to some scientists, it is expanding due to tectonics, while others believe it is not. However, the consensus from the scientific community as a whole is that the expansion of the Earth is not due to plate tectonics. Therefore, it can be due to something else.



So if you were to take the consensus that Earth is not expanding, then you would have to believe that it is the universe that is expanding instead. But if that was the case, then you would have to disprove the majority that claims that the universe is not expanding as they once thought it was. And if you do that, then you just might have to concede to an expanding Earth and firmament/Dome. In other words, since according to some; one is expanding, the other is not. But to others, the other is expanding while the prior is not. Perhaps the two are expanding. An expanding universe makes no difference to a flat Farther since they believe the firmament is the universe; and if that is the thing that is expanding then so is the Earth – since the firmament is attached to the Earth. In other words, both are infinite; a flat universe demonstrates this. The expansion may be due to an over spreading sheet – hence the Earth.

The following links tells of a non-expanding universe. (23) (24) (25) (26) (27).






The expanding may be due to an over spreading sheet (firmament/dome – canopy; tent) and Earth. So far, throughout this entire book, I have been quoting from reputable citations. But I firmly believe it is time to cite a number of Biblical citations that seem to support the expanding of the Heavens and Earth theory at this time.

Note: To “bow” or “bowed” in the following instances of citations means; “to thread out.” “To spread and stitch.”

2 Samuel 22:10 “He bowed the heavens also and came down; and darkness was under his feet.”

Job 9:8 “Which alone spreadeth out the heavens, and treadeth upon the waves of the sea.”

Job 26:7 “He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing.”

Job 37:18 “Hast thou with him spread out the sky, which is strong, and as a molten looking glass?”

Psalm 18:9 “He bowed the heavens also and came down: and darkness was under his feet.”

Psalm 104:2 “Who coverest thyself with light as with a garment: who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain.”

Psalm 144:5 “Bow thy heavens, O LORD, and come down: touch the mountains, and they shall smoke.”

Isaiah 40:22 “It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in.”

Isaiah 42:5 “Thus saith God the LORD, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein.”

Isaiah 44:24 “Thus saith the LORD, thy redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I am the LORD that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone; that spreadeth abroad the earth by myself.”

Isaiah 45:12 “I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.”

Isaiah 48:13 “Mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand hath spanned the heavens: when I call unto them, they stand up together.”

Isaiah 51:13 “And forgettest the LORD thy maker, that hath stretched forth the heavens, and laid the foundations of the earth; and hast feared continually every day because of the fury of the oppressor, as if he were ready to destroy? and where is the fury of the oppressor?”

Jeremiah 10:12 “He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by his discretion.”

Jeremiah 51:15 “He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heaven by his understanding.”

Ezekiel 1:22 “And the likeness of the firmament upon the heads of the living creature was as the color of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above.”

Zechariah 12:1 “The burden of the word of the LORD for Israel, saith the LORD, which stretcheth forth the heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him.” (28).

28. Holy Bible, King James Version.

From here we see Hilbert spaces. “Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space. It extends the methods of vector algebra and calculus from the two-dimensional Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space to spaces with any finite or infinite number of dimensions. It’s essentially just an infinitely dimensional vector space. A Hilbert space is an abstract vector space possessing the structure of an inner product that allows length and angle to be measured. Furthermore, Hilbert spaces are complete: there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used.”

In other words, a flat 2-dimensional universe – Euclidean Space – which contain finite dimensions of length and width and 3 dimensional spaces – which contain length, width and height can be fixed and set at any infinite or finite distances to allow for measure and limits but can also allow for limits that do not exist – hence the expansion. It allows curved space, which is often referred to as spatial geometry that is not flat, for flat space, described as Euclidean geometry to exist. Hence a flat universe with a flat expanding infinite Earth/dome is not difficult to comprehend. If you are familiar with integrals and Gausses Law, then you should be able to understand the mathematics for an infinite Earth/dome.

Gauss’s law, with alleged gravitational forces, examined on an infinite plane…

gn dA = -4πGm

Now picture that formula on our circular flat steel plate in a flat universe. The density of the plate cancels out its own gravitational influence and contributes nothing. You can also think of this as a flat cylinder plane. Yes, cylinders are flat. Just find one and draw 2 parallel lines – they will go on to infinity, by mathematical calculations that is. Hence “0”

g•n = 0

Looking at g and n, we must remember that they are also parallel and opposite each other and so we realize gn = -g. This leaves the surface integral of just the steel plate ends (its surface to its end). But since we have two opposites; the integral becomes the sum of the parts of dA. Hence, we have…

-g∮dA = g2A

When performing this equation as…

-g 2A = -4πGm.

Gravity becomes finite, in other words: limited. Not everywhere like we are told.

g’s value is finite…

– g= 2πGm / A.

This is further realized by noting mass = (density * Area), giving us a finite value…and since it is finite, it has its limits

gA= 2πGpA, or g = 2πG p.

And since it is finite, it has its limits, not applicable to the shape of the Earth. But in reference to the average density of Earth – it’s depth…

m = (density * Area * depth). This gives us instead…

g = 2πG p d, where d is depth.

g = 9.81 m/s/s
G = 6.754×10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2
p = 5.51 g/cm³ the average density of Earth.

But even with all of this going on, why do we see the Earth’s limits – as pictured in photographs and video feeds; limited by its ball shaped self just hanging there suspended? Considering what we have learned thus far; it is my belief that we are not seeing the Earth in its entirety. As a matter fact, that would literally be impossible on an infinite Earth plane. So, what we get instead is a “ball,” a “fisheye ball,” an expanding universe only with various ball solid objects (called planets) and exaggerated measurements based on faulty questionable methods by one big happy scientific military family.

Section D: One Big Happy Family

The following list is taken from (29).


These are the companies that NASA has contracts with. Here is a list of what some of these companies do. Moreover, you will notice that the DOD (Department of Defense) and the military are mentioned in conjunction with these contracted companies on several occasions…

1. Blue Origin “Blue Origin, LLC is an American privately funded aerospace manufacturer and spaceflight services company headquartered in Kent, Washington. Founded in 2000 by Jeff Bezos, the company is developing technologies to enable private human access to space with the goal to dramatically lower costs and increase reliability.”

2. Paragon Space Development Corporation. Paragon, a Lockheed Martin (See Lockheed Martin at #5, 10 and so on T. Perez) subcontractor on the NASA Orion program, provided the tubing for life-support systems including oxygen, heating and cooling and critical sensor packages for the EFT-1 flight.”

3. Sierra Nevada Corporation Space Systems “is an American privately held electronic systems provider and systems integrator specializing in microsatellites, telemedicine and commercial orbital transportation services. Sierra Nevada Corporation operates under the leadership of Chief Executive Officer, Fatih Ozmen and President, Eren Ozmen. The company contracts with the United States Armed ForcesNASA and private spaceflight companies. It is headquartered in Sparks, Nevada.”

4. The Boeing Company “is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide. The company also provides leasing and product support services.”

5. United Launch Alliance is a provider of spacecraft launch services to the United States government. It was formed as a joint venture between Lockheed Martin Space Systems and Boeing Defense, Space & Security in December 2006 by combining the teams at the two companies. U.S. government launch customers include the Department of Defense and NASA, as well as other organizations. With ULA, Lockheed, and Boeing held a monopoly on military launches for more than a decade until the US Air Force awarded a GPS satellite contract to SpaceX in 2016.”

6. Anadarko Industries LLC (AI) is a Native American Tribal Owned Company, recognized as a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB), headquartered in Houston, TX.  We have been providing value added services for over 14 years to Federal Government Agencies, such as NASA, Air Force, Navy, and USDA.”

7. Wyle “Today, Wyle is recognized as a leading provider of specialized engineering, scientific, and technical services to the Department of Defense, NASA, and a variety of commercial customers. With 4,800 highly specialized and dedicated employees at 50-plus primary facilities nationwide, the company generates annual revenues of approximately $1.1 billion from its core customers, the Department of Defense, NASA, and the nation’s leading aerospace contractors.” (30).


8. ITAR “Founded in 1988, we are a woman-owned small business specializing in engineering, planning and integration, logistics, information systems, configuration and data management, and project management. Our excellent reputation is based upon providing safe, dependable and flexible program control and integration services across the country. We are ITAR certified by the U.S. State Department, as well as AS9100 certified for quality services and products. We use a structured teamwork approach and continually invest in our team members’ and our company’s future success through ongoing research, cross-training, and employee development programs.” (31).


Everything here seems harmless enough, right? Until you see the letters ITAR. The “International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) is a United States regulatory regime to restrict and control the export of defense and military related technologies to safeguard U.S. national security and further U.S. foreign policy objectives.”

9. SMASS “The current SMASS contract provides the NASA-JSC Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate with support in the fields of safety, reliability, maintainability, quality engineering, and quality assurance and also provides essential skills and expertise in the subsystem disciplines of structures, mechanisms, environmental control and life support systems, guidance navigation and controls, and propulsion and thermal control systems.” (32).


Everything here seems harmless. But when we look at the NAICS Code: 541330, we will note that it falls under a wide range of applications from the Navy, Army and, yes, even NASA as the picture below illustrates…

10. Lockheed Martin Corporation is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquartered in North BethesdaMaryland, in the Washington, DC, area. Lockheed Martin employs approximately 100,000 people worldwide as of December 2017. And here’s a bit of controversy. “In August 2018, a laser-guided Mark 82 bomb sold by the US and built by Lockheed Martin was used in the Saudi-led coalition airstrike on a school bus in Yemen, which killed 51 people, including 40 children.” (33) (34) (35) (36).

33. US SEC: Form 10-K Lockheed Martin Corporation”. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved January 11, 2018.

34. Elbagir, Nima, Salma Abdelaziz, Ryan Browne, Barbara Arvanitidis and Laura Smith-Spark (August 14, 2018). “Bomb that killed 40 children in Yemen was supplied by US”CNN. Retrieved August 24, 2018.

35. “Lockheed Martin’s #WorldPhotoDay Tweet Backfires”. HuffPost. August 18, 2018.


11. United Space Alliance “(USA) is a spaceflight operations company. USA is a joint venture which was established in August 1995 as a Limited Liability Company (LLC), equally owned by Boeing and Lockheed Martin.” (37).

37. UNITED SPACE ALLIANCE AWARDED IMOC CONTRACT” (PDF) (Press release). United Space Alliance. 2008-11-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-02-26. Retrieved 2008-11-03.

12. AL-Razaq Computing Services provides information technology services. The Company offers business warehouse and data mining, financial and acquisition management, cost estimating, business analysis, and software development solutions. AL-Razaq Computing Services operates in the State of Texas.” (38).


No harm here.

13. Tecolote Research “provides decision support, program management, project controls, and software solutions.”

They provide services to a number of agencies and military government bodies.

“Our services under these Professional Services SINs encompass a wide range of equipment: space systems; technology programs; radar; communications for ground, sea and space-based systems; missiles; aircraft; electronic warfare; signal processing; and computer software.” (39).


14. TTI “On December 28, 2017, TTI was awarded the JSC Logistics Contract by NASA.”

Who is TTI? Answer: “TTI, Inc. is a specialty distributor of electronic components that include, but are not limited to: capacitors, resistors, connectors, switches, relays, circuit protection, electromagnetics, discrete semiconductors, sensorsRF modules, antennas, and more.” (40).

“Founded to serve aerospace and defense equipment manufacturers, the company’s customers now include manufacturers in the transportation, industrial, medical, and communications sectors.” (41).



15. Pacific Architects and Engineer’s (commonly known as PAE, or PA&E) is an American defense and government services contractor. Founded in 1955 by Edward Shay, it is headquartered in Arlington, Virginia. Since 2016 it has been owned by Platinum Equity.” (42).

42. Wiki.

“According to PAE, its clients – as of 2016 – included the United Nations, New Zealand Defense ForceU.S. Department of EnergyUK Ministry of Defense, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationU.S. NavyU.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Department of State, among others.” (43).

“According to PAE, since 2016 it has operated NASA‘s Stennis Space Center and Michoud Assembly Facility as part of a joint contract with BWX Technologies.” (44).

43. Company Overview” (PDF) Pacific Architects and Engineers. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2018.

44. Centralized and Efficient Management of Two NASA Facilities”. Pacific Architects and Engineers. Archived from the original on January 4, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2018.

16. SpaceX may be private, but it has a contract with NASA. In other words, so-called “space” is not without its flight restrictions. Moreover, it falls under commercial and resupply services. (45) (46) (47).

45. Kenneth Chang (September 27, 2016). “Elon Musk’s Plan: Get Humans to Mars, and Beyond”. New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2016.

46. “Making Life Multi-planetary – RELAYTO/”. RELAYTO/. 2018. Retrieved 2018-04-04.


17. The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) is proud to work with the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the Advanced Manufacturing, Materials, and Processes (AMMP) program to advance and enable additive manufacturing to create next-generation manufacturing breakthroughs.

18. Leidos NASA has awarded a contract to Leidos Innovations”

“Leidos, formerly known as Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), is an American defense, aviation, information technology, and biomedical research company headquartered in Reston, Virginia, that provides scientific, engineering, systems integration, and technical services. Leidos works extensively with the United States Department of Defense (4th largest DoD contractor FY2012), the United States Department of Homeland Security, and the United States Intelligence Community, including the NSA, as well as other U.S. government civil agencies and selected commercial markets.” One of its subsidiaries is Lockheed Martin Industrial Defender, acquired by merging with Lockheed Martin IS&GS. (48) (49).


49. Science Applications International Corporation. “Fiscal Year 2013 annual report on Form 10-K” (PDF). Retrieved August 9,2013.

19. The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory “is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility, near the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.” (50).

50. Wiki.

“The Space Vehicle Mockup Facility is a large open space area located inside Building 9 of Johnson Space Center in Houston. It consists of a long 200-meter-long chamber that houses several Space Shuttle mockups, as well as mockups of every major pressurized module on the International Space Station.” (51).

51. Ibid.

20. Jacobs “Today, Jacobs is proud to work with agencies including the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, NASA, U.S. Special Operations Command, as well as the Departments of Transportation and Energy, among others.” (52).


21. Lockheed Martin “is an American aerospace company that is building the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle for NASA.” (53).


The U.S Army selected Bastion to provide expert system safety consultation and hazard tracking systems services for missile systems. They work with Lockheed.

After looking into all of the companies and various corporations, I am convinced that there is more to NASA than meets the eye. Moreover, if the Earth was truly proven to be flat and infinite then NASA and every other space agency would literally be laughed out of the business – a multibillion dollar business. Their business would crumble, and they would have to admit that perhaps there is a God; and that this God created our Earth flat and infinite. Moreover, astronomical, astrophysical, the theoretical sciences and every sub-category itself would have to admit to the validity of the Scriptures. This is something I believe they would never do, much less admit to. There’s just simply too much at stake. And although I do not believe that space itself is fake or non-existent like the video claims without any justification from a presupposition, I do find little nuggets here and there, and the history or origin of the word “space,” quite interesting. In conclusion, space itself is to just that, space. The space of the expanding Earth firmament universe. But unfortunately, space agencies are holding back on this, claiming the opposite; propagating and upholding their version of “The Truman Show.”