Glossary of Terms ‘Z’

Written By Thomas Perez. December 14, 2010 at 6:06PM. Copyright 2010.

Zen Buddhism
A fusion of Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism, practiced chiefly in China and Japan. It places great importance on moment-by-moment awareness and ‘seeing deeply into the nature of things’ by direct experience. The name derives from the Sanskrit word dhyana referring to a particular meditativestate.

The religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster(Zarathustra, Zartosht).


1. Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 1994. This dictionary includes an entry for this word.

2. Smith, M. K.; association, la vie associative and lifelong learning cites Hirst, P. Referencespage 112.

3. Horgan & Timmons (2006c), pp. 220-221.

4. Horgan & Timmons (2006b), p. 86

5. Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 1994. This dictionary includes an entry about Sigmund Freud, and the impact his ideas have had upon philosophy.

6. Audi, Robert. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, 1999. This dictionary includes an extensive entry on the ideas of Sigmund Freud.

7. Sardar, Ziauddin(1998), “Science in Islamic philosophy.” Islamic Philosophy. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, retrieved 2008-02-03

8. Logicism

9. Principia Mathematicaentry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

10. John Scott & Gordon Marshall (eds) A Dictionary of Sociology (Article: neo-Marxism), Oxford University Press, 1998

11. “In the twentieth century, the social processes that bring this maelstrom into being, and keep it in a state of perpetual becoming, have come to be called ‘modernization’. These world-historical processes have nourished an amazing variety of visions and ideas that aim to make men and women the subjects as well as the objects of modernization, to give them the power to change the world that is changing them, to make their way through the maelstrom and make it their own. Over the past century, these visions and values have come to be loosely grouped together under the name of ‘modernism'” (Berman 1988, 16).

12. In 1917 Guillaume Apollinaire coined the term “Surrealism” in the program notes describing the ballet Parade which was a collaborative work by Jean Cocteau, Erik Satie, Pablo Picasso and Léonide Massine: “From this new alliance, for until now stage sets and costumes on one side and choreography on the other had only a sham bond between them, there has come about, in Parade, a kind of super-realism (‘sur-réalisme’), in which I see the starting point of a series of manifestations of this new spirit (‘esprit nouveau’).

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